General Information
What is GERD??
Gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GORD), Gastric reflux disease, or Acid reflux disease is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus.

This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. This can be due to incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatus hernia.

If the reflux reaches the throat, it is called laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

What is an Ulcer???
A peptic ulcer, also known as ulcers pepticum, PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is an ulcer (defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm) of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful. As much as 80% of ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylori, a spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the acidic environment of the stomach, however only 20% of those cases go to a doctor. Ulcers can also be caused or worsened by drugs such as aspirin and other NSAIDs. Contrary to general belief, more peptic ulcers arise in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine, just after the stomach) than in the stomach. About 4% of stomach ulcers are caused by a malignant tumor, so multiple biopsies are needed to make sure. Duodenal ulcers are generally benign.
What is an Hiatal Hernia???
A hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is the protrusion (or hernia ion) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm.
What is Constipation??
Constipation, costiveness, or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system in which a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to expel. This usually happens because the colon absorbs too much water from the food. If the food moves through the gastro-intestinal tract too slowly, the colon may absorb too much water, resulting in feces that are dry and hard. Defecation may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. The term obstipation is used for severe constipation that prevents passage of both stools and gas. Causes of constipation may be dietary, hormonal, anatomical, a side effect of medications (e.g. some opiates), or an illness or disorder. Treatments consist of changes in dietary and exercise habits, the use of laxatives, and other medical interventions depending on the underlying cause.
Why is screening for Colon Cancer effective?
According to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), colonoscopy remains the most effective screening option for colorectal cancer.

Colonoscopy is widely accepted as the best method for colon cancer screening because it allows the trained physician to thoroughly evaluate the entire colon. Colonoscopy has a high detection rate for polyps, including small lesions, and the ability to remove them immediately during the procedure, rather than scheduling a second exam. Biopsies can also be taken of any abnormal areas at the same time as the screening or diagnostic test.
Who is at risk Colorectal Cancer??
Factors that may increase your risk of colon cancer include:

* Age. About 90 percent of people diagnosed with colon cancer are older than 50. Colon cancer can occur in younger people, but it occurs much less frequently.

* A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. If you've already had colon cancer or adenomatous polyps, you have a greater risk of colon cancer in the future.

* Inflammatory intestinal conditions. Long-standing inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can increase your risk of colon cancer.

* Inherited disorders that affect the colon. Genetic syndromes passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of colon cancer. These syndromes cause only about 5 percent of all colon cancers. One genetic syndrome called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a rare disorder that causes you to develop thousands of polyps in the lining of your colon and rectum. People with untreated FAP have a greater than 90 percent chance of developing colon cancer by age 45. Another genetic syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also called Lynch syndrome, is more common than FAP. People with HNPCC have an increased risk of colon cancer and tend to develop colon cancer at an early age. Both FAP and HNPCC can be detected through genetic testing. Talk to your doctor about whether your family history suggests you have a risk of these conditions.

* Family history of colon cancer and colon polyps. You're more likely to develop colon cancer if you have a parent, sibling or child with the disease. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even greater. In some cases, this connection may not be hereditary or genetic. Instead, cancers within the same family may result from shared exposure to an environmental carcinogen or from diet or lifestyle factors.

* People who eat a diet similar to that of Western countries, such as the United States and Europe, have a higher risk of developing colon cancer than do people who eat diets typically seen in developing countries. When people move from a developing country to a Western country and adapt to the Western diet, their risk of colon cancer increases. Although many studies have tried to identify what part of the Western diet may cause colon cancer, the answer remains unknown.

* A sedentary lifestyle. If you're inactive, you're more likely to develop colon cancer. This may be because when you're inactive, waste stays in your colon longer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk.

* Diabetes. People with diabetes and insulin resistance may have an increased risk of colon cancer.

* Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.

* Smoking. People who smoke cigarettes may have an increased risk of colon cancer. They may also have an increased chance of dying of colon cancer.

* Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your odds of colon cancer.

* Growth hormone disorder. Acromegaly, an uncommon disorder that causes an excess of growth hormone in your body, may increase your risk of colon polyps and colon cancer.

* Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers may increase the risk of colon cancer.
What is IBS??
In gastroenterology, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), also called spastic colon, is a functional bowel disorder characterized by mild to severe abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating and alteration of bowel habits. In some cases, the symptoms are relieved by bowel movements. Diarrhea or constipation may predominate, or they may alternate (classified as IBS-D, IBS-C or IBS-A, respectively). IBS may begin after an infection (post-infectious, IBS-PI) or a stressful life event. Other functional or pain disorders and certain psychological conditions are more common in those with IBS.

Although there is no cure for IBS, there are treatments which attempt to relieve symptoms, including dietary adjustments, medication and psychological interventions. Patient education and a good doctor-patient relationship are also important.

Several conditions may present as IBS including celiac disease, mild infections, parasitic infections like giardiasis, several inflammatory bowel diseases, functional chronic constipation and chronic functional abdominal pain. In IBS, routine clinical tests yield no abnormalities, though the bowels may be more sensitive to certain stimuli, such as balloon insufflations testing. The exact cause of IBS is unknown. The most common theory is that IBS is a disorder of the interaction between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract, although there may also be abnormalities in the gut flora or the immune system.
What is EGD??
In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagus gastro duo endoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure since it does not require an incision into one of the major body cavities and does not require any significant recovery after the procedure (unless sedation or anesthesia has been used). A sore throat is also common.